AP Biology Fall Final Study Guide

Note: This is just a guide some items may or may not appear on the exam.


  1. Types and strengths of chemical bonds and where used in macromolecules.
  2. Functional groups found on organic molecules.
  3. Determining number of grams of a molecule needed to make molar solution.
  4. How do buffers work?
  5. Calculating the concentration of either [H+] or [OH-] from pH or pOH values.
  6. Types of reactions needed to catabolize or anabolize macromolecules.
  7. Structure, functional groups, and types of bonds of macromolecules.
  8. How proteins are manufactured, packaged, labeled, and transported within or out of a cell.
  9. Know the major structural differences between a prokaryotic (bacteria), virus, and eukaryotic cells (fungi, plantae, protista, animalia).
  10. Know the names, major structural and functional characteristics of organelles and other structures of a eukaryotic cell.
  11. Understand and be able to predict the movement of solutes through a selectively permeable membrane.
  12. Know how and which types of molecules (charged or non-polar, large or small) can pass through a plasma membrane.
  13. Know the various ways that molecules, gases, other cells can enter or leave a cell.
  14. What are enzymes composed of, how do enzymes work, do enzymes require the use other molecules? What inhibits enzyme action? What mechanisms help regulate enzyme function?
  15. Know the features of an energy diagram including ΔG equation.
  16. Know the basic features (structures and reactant molecules) of cellular respiration and fermentation, including products from all three main processes.
  17. Be able to understand the relationship between oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis, electron transport chains in ATP synthesis in both mitochondria and chloroplasts.
  18. Know the basic features (structures and reactants and products) of photosynthesis in chloroplasts.
  19. Know alternate pathways for avoid photorespiration. (C4/CAM)
  20. Know the major types of chemical messengers (including second messengers) used in cell signaling.
  21. Know the major structures and steps involved with mitosis and meiosis.
  22. How do the various phases of cell cycle relate to mitosis? What is the purpose of a restriction point?
  23. Predict the haploid (meiosis) number of oocytes or spermatocytes or diploid number (mitosis) of chromosomes of the daughter cells.
  24. If a species (2N=6); how many different combinations are possible in a gamete?
  25. What is the result of crossing over?
  26. What are the results of different types of phenotypic effects (non-Mendelian)? How are the phenotypic probabilities different altered Mendelian predictions? (incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis)
  27. Know how to read a pedigree chart to detect autosomal, x-linked, recessive and dominant inheritance.
  28. How is frequency of recombination calculated? What does that percentage indicate about chromosomal structure?
  29. History of discovery of nature and structure and function of DNA.
  30. Mechanism and enzymes necessary for replication of DNA.
  31. Be able to accurately transcribe and translate and assign the correct amino acid for a triplet codon or anti-codon with a chart.
  32. What is the sequence of events for protein synthesis?
  33. What are the various types of RNA and what are their functions?
  34. What are the different types of mutations and what are the consequences of these mutations?
  35. What is a prion? How are prions detected?
  36. What is an inducible operon or repressible operon? Who are the major participants in a bacterial operon?
  37. What is the purpose of methylation? What is the name of the opposite process?
  38. What are the characteristics of a transposon? What is the difference between a transposon and a retrotransposon?
  39. What is exon shuffling?
  40. What are and how are restriction enzymes used in biotechnology?
  41. How does electrophoresis sort restriction fragments on a gel?
  42. What are the three major processes used to effect embryonic development?
  43. What is cloning?
  44. What is the importance of homeobox-containing genes?
  45. What is the most important factor affecting the distribution of biomes?
  46. What are the major features of each type of biome?
  47. What is a photoperiod?
  48. What are the major types of behavior and what kinds of actions or chemicals can act as stimuli?
  49. How does the mark and recapture technique help predict the number of members in a population?
  50. What is the most common type of specie distribution?
  51. What are the various types of survivorship curves?
  52. What do parasitism, symbiosis, predation, competition and commensalisms have in common?
  53. What is the difference between aposematic coloration, Batesian coloration and mimicry?
  54. What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
  55. What are some of the causes of ecological community disturbances?
  56. What are some of the biogeographical aspects of diversity?
  57. What are the major differences between Lamarckian and Darwinian evolutionary concepts?
  58. What is the difference between artificial and sexual selection?
  59. Know how to do Hardy-Weinberg problems.