AP Biology Fall
Final Study Guide
Note: This is just a guide some items may or may not appear
on the exam.
and strengths of chemical bonds and where used in macromolecules.
groups found on organic molecules.
number of grams of a molecule needed to make molar solution.
- How do
the concentration of either [H+] or [OH-] from pH or pOH values.
of reactions needed to catabolize or anabolize macromolecules.
functional groups, and types of bonds of macromolecules.
proteins are manufactured, packaged, labeled, and transported within or
out of a cell.
the major structural differences between a prokaryotic (bacteria), virus,
and eukaryotic cells (fungi, plantae, protista, animalia).
the names, major structural and functional characteristics of organelles
and other structures of a eukaryotic cell.
and be able to predict the movement of solutes through a selectively
how and which types of molecules (charged or non-polar, large or small)
can pass through a plasma membrane.
the various ways that molecules, gases, other cells can enter or leave a
are enzymes composed of, how do enzymes work, do enzymes require the use
other molecules? What inhibits enzyme action? What mechanisms help
regulate enzyme function?
the features of an energy diagram including ΔG equation.
the basic features (structures and reactant molecules) of cellular
respiration and fermentation, including products from all three main
able to understand the relationship between oxidative phosphorylation,
chemiosmosis, electron transport chains in ATP
synthesis in both mitochondria and chloroplasts.
the basic features (structures and reactants and products) of
photosynthesis in chloroplasts.
alternate pathways for avoid photorespiration. (C4/CAM)
the major types of chemical messengers (including second messengers) used
in cell signaling.
the major structures and steps involved with mitosis and meiosis.
- How do
the various phases of cell cycle relate to mitosis? What is the purpose of
a restriction point?
the haploid (meiosis) number of oocytes or spermatocytes or diploid number (mitosis) of
chromosomes of the daughter cells.
- If a
species (2N=6); how many different combinations are possible in a gamete?
is the result of crossing over?
are the results of different types of phenotypic effects (non-Mendelian)? How are the phenotypic probabilities
different altered Mendelian predictions?
(incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, pleiotropy,
how to read a pedigree chart to detect autosomal,
x-linked, recessive and dominant inheritance.
- How is
frequency of recombination calculated? What does that percentage indicate
about chromosomal structure?
of discovery of nature and structure and function of DNA.
and enzymes necessary for replication of DNA.
able to accurately transcribe and translate and assign the correct amino
acid for a triplet codon or anti-codon with a chart.
is the sequence of events for protein synthesis?
are the various types of RNA and what are their functions?
are the different types of mutations and what are the consequences of
is a prion? How are prions
is an inducible operon or repressible operon? Who are the major participants in a bacterial operon?
is the purpose of methylation? What is the name
of the opposite process?
are the characteristics of a transposon? What is
the difference between a transposon and a retrotransposon?
is exon shuffling?
are and how are restriction enzymes used in biotechnology?
does electrophoresis sort restriction fragments on a gel?
are the three major processes used to effect embryonic development?
is the importance of homeobox-containing genes?
is the most important factor affecting the distribution of biomes?
are the major features of each type of biome?
is a photoperiod?
are the major types of behavior and what kinds of actions or chemicals can
act as stimuli?
does the mark and recapture technique help predict the number of members
in a population?
is the most common type of specie distribution?
are the various types of survivorship curves?
do parasitism, symbiosis, predation, competition and commensalisms have in
- What is
the difference between aposematic coloration, Batesian coloration and mimicry?
is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
are some of the causes of ecological community disturbances?
are some of the biogeographical aspects of
are the major differences between Lamarckian and Darwinian evolutionary
is the difference between artificial and sexual selection?
how to do Hardy-Weinberg problems.