Joints Study Guide

Be able to describe:                              KNOW All DIAGRAMS IN BOOK AND COLORING

Joint                                                    RELATED TO JOINTS


Movement of joints depends on:

Classification of Joints:


  1. synarthrosis:
  2. amphiarthrosis:
  3. diarthrosis:



1.        fibrous:

a.       sutures: (synarthrosis)

b.       syndesmosis: (amphiarthrosis)

c.       gomphosis: (synarthrosis)

2.       cartilaginous:

a.       synchondrosis: (synarthrosis)

b.       symphyses: (amphiarthrotic)

3.       synovial: know the parts of this type of joint and their function

a.       synovial cavity:

b.        (diarthrosis)

c.       articular capsule

d.     synovial membrane

e.       synovial fluid:

f.       accessory ligaments

                                                                           i.      menisci:

                                                                         ii.      bursae:

1.        bursitis:

2.       bunions:

g.       types of synovial joints

1.        planar :

2.       pivot joints

                                                                         ii.      condyloid:

                                                                       iii.      saddle:

1.        ball and socket:


Movements at Synovial joints:

  1. gliding at planar joints
  2. angular
    1. flexion: decrease in angle between articulating bones
    2. extension: increase, often used to restore to anatomical position
    3. hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball and socket: flexion and extension
    4. hyperextension: put your head back
    5. abduction: move a bone away form the midline
    6. adduction: movement towards the midline
    7. condyloid, saddle, ball and socket: adduction and abduction
    8. circumduction: movement of a distal end in a circle (ball and socket)
  3. rotation: revolves around its own axis, shake your head no, ball and socket and pivot
  4. special: occur only at certain joints
    1. elevation: closing mouth and shrugging shoulders
    2. depression: opening mouth, reverse shrugged shoulders
    3. protraction: thrust your jaw out and clavicles
    4. retraction: protraction reversed
    5. inversion: movement of soles medially so they face each other
    6. eversion: move soles laterally face opposite
    7. dorsiflexion: stand on heels
    8. plantarflexion: stand on toes
    9. supination: palm is forward and upward (anatomical position)
    10. pronation: palm is backward and downward


Knee joint:

1.        articular capsule strengthened by tendons

2.       patellar ligament strengthens anterior surface of joint

3.       oblique popliteal ligament: strengthens posterior

4.       arcuate popliteal ligament: strengthens lower lateral posterior

5.       tibial collateral ligament: strengthens medial aspect

6.       fibular collateral ligament: strengthens lateral

7.       anterior cruciate ligament: (ACL) extends posteriorly and laterally from tibia to femur (70% serious knee injuries)

8.       posterior cruciate ligament: (PCL) extends anteriorly and medially from tibia to femur

9.       lateral and medial menisci: between tibia and femur condyles, fibrocartilage

10.    bursae


Injury: football common

Water on the knee:






Aging joints: what happens to them

Arthiritis: inflamed joints


Acute arthritis:

Chronic arthritis:


Rheumatoid arthritis:

Gouty arthritis: