Cardiovascular System Review

 

From the right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the  _______________ through the __________ valve to the pulmonary trunk to the right and left ____________, to the capillary beds of the ___________, to the ___________ to the ________________of the heart through the ____________valve, to the ______________through the _____________ semilunar valve, to the _______________, to the _____________.

 

 Fill in the blank

The heart is a cone-shaped muscular organ located within the _____________. Its apex rests on the _________, and its base is at the level of the __________rib. The coronary arteries that nourish the myocardium arise from the _____________. Te coronary sinus empties into the ______________. Relative to the roles of the heart chambers the __________________ are receiving chambers, whereas the _________ are discharging chambers. The membrane that lines the heart and also forms the valve flaps is called the ________________. The outermost layer of the heart is called the ______________. The fluid that fills the pericardial sac acts to decrease ________________ during heart activity. The heart muscle, or myocardium, is composed off a specialized type of muscle tissue called ____________.

 

Name and know the location of the 4 valves of the heart. What is the function of the valves in the heart

 

Name and know the location of the three layers of the pericardial sac.

 

 

Name and know the location of the three layers of the heartís wall.

 

Be able to draw cardiac muscle cells together and label their unique structures and functions.

 

 Imagine that you are a drop of blood coming from the right toe. Trace your pathway through the heart as you travel to drop of carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen.

 

What do pappilary muscles do? What do cordae tendinae do?

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What is cardiac output?

 

Know the route blood travels through the heart. Be able to label a diagram of the heart and major blood vessels

 

What is angina? Artherosclerosis? Fibrillation? An infarct? heart block?

 

What is the pacemaker?

 

Which blood vessel tunic is composed of smooth muscle and controls the diameter of the vessel?

 

Which structures of fetal circulation are designed to bypass the lungs in an unborn baby?

 

Which vessel(s) deliver blood from the liver to the digestive organs, spleen and pancreas?

 

Capillary beds are drained by?

 

What factors contribute to vasoconstriction and hypertension? think nicotine, caffeine, renin ....

 

know the role of kidneys and renin concerning the cardiovascular system

 

The tissue which forms the loose fitting sac around the heart?

 

What are the tissues of the heart? Name and location

 

Know major components of an ECG wave: the correct sequence of an impulse

        also what segment has which function: ex. which is ventricular repolarization and atrial depolarization

 

What is the product of SV and HR

 

Know the following circulation routes: coronary, hepatic, renal, systemic and pulmonary

 

Know the intrinsic and extrinsic (chemicals: digitalis, Ca., K ..) conduction systems of the heart

 

Know the functions and structures of the three types of blood vessels

    Tunica extrema, intima, media,

 

Systemic blood pressure is most commonly calculated where?

 

Which drugs speed and slow the HR

 

What is the circle of willis

 

What is ventricular systole?

 

What is the purpose of rennin when secreted by the kidneys?

 

What can a huge loss of blood pressure indicate?

 

What are the roles of the lymphatic system? where does the lymph drain back into the heart?

 

What does Tachcardia look like on an ECG? Bradycardia? Atrial and Ventricular Fibrillation? What may cause each of these to occur?

 

What kind of heart conditions can an EKG not identify? symptoms, treatments

 

What are the 3 different types of heart blocks? What might cause these to occur?