Cat Blood Vessels

Directions:  The list of arteries and veins you need to identify can be found below the links to cat images. Regular A&P Students need to know where the vessels indicated with a **  deliver blood to and from (which organs)

Some vessels have been designated for the Honors Students only.  HONORS STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW WHERE ALL OF THE VESSELS DELIVER BLOOD TO AND FROM  (WHICH ORGANS)

Chest, neck and arms  http://www.ivcc.edu/Caley/108/lab_images/neckthorax.htm

Abdominal aorta branches http://www.ivcc.edu/Caley/108/lab_images/abaorta.html

Hepatic Portal System http://www.ivcc.edu/Caley/108/lab_images/portal.html

Other Cat circulatory images (all body parts) http://www.bio.psu.edu/faculty/strauss/anatomy/circ/circulat.htm

Your best dissection instrument at this point is the mall probe.  Use it instead of a scalpel or scissors to expose and follow the path of a blood vessel.  It is used for clearing a blood vessel of the connective tissue adhering to it, to tear into  thin muscle to follow a vessel, to separate one blood vessel from another, or from the nerves associated with it.

You have already exposed the heart and some of the major veins.  Extend your incision into the neck area.  If you have not yet done so, expose the trachea, larynx, and thyroid gland as in the photo on page 104 in the blue or brown small cat dissection manual. The thymus glad is large in younger animals.  It lies ventrally upon the lower trachea and extends to the heart where it is associated with the pericardium. The trachea is the windpipe, it extends along the mid-ventral portion of the neck.   The thymus and pericardium should be removed before studying the heart and thoracic blood vessels.

Veins of the body lie close to the surface of the body and are therefore studied before the arteries which lie deep to the veins.  In doubly injected specimens veins will be blue, arteries will be red due to the latex dye with which they were injected.

CAT VEINS

(Note: "v" indicates an unpaired vein; "vv" indicates a pair of veins)

A. SUPERIOR VENA CAVA  Refer to the cat dissection guide pages 104-112

1. Right Brachiocephalic v  (yarn color =  tourquoise) ** 
2. Left Brachiocephalic v  (yarn color = orange) ** 
3. Internal Mammary v - drains the anterior chest wall  HONORS ONLY (yarn color = brown)
4. Azygous v - drains the posterior wall of the thoracic cavity HONORS ONLY (yarn color = dark blue)                                                                   

B. DIVISIONS OF THE BRACHIOCEPHALIC VEINS

1. Subclavian vv  (yarn color = gray) ** 
3. External Jugular vv (yarn color = light green) ** 
(a) Internal Jugular vv (often reduced or absent in the cat) ** 
(b) Transverse Jugular v (yarn color = lavender)
 

C. TWO MAJOR BRANCHES OF THE SUBCLAVIAN VEINS:

1.Axillary v   (yarn color = white) **

D. BRACHIAL VEIN- continuation of the Axillary v; drains the arm (yarn color = light blue) **

E. CORONARY VEINS - veins that drain the heart muscle

F. INFERIOR VENA CAVA:

1. Hepatic Portal System (injected with yellow latex): (yarn color = golenrod)
The Inferior Mesenteric v drains into the Superior Mesenteric v, which joins the Gastrosplenic v. to form the Hepatic Portal v. The Hepatic Portal vein drains blood into the liver.
2. Renal vv  **  (yarn color = tourquoise)
4. Spermatic (male) or Ovarian (female) vv HONORS ONLY  (yarn color = black)
 

G. BRANCHES OF THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA DRAINING THE LOWER EXTREMITIES:

1. Right Common Iliac v (yarn color = yellow)
2. Left Common Iliac v (yarn color = light green)
3. Internal Iliac vv  (yarn color = lavender)
4. External Iliac vv (yarn color = pink)
5. Femoral vv (yarn color = black)
6. Great Saphenous vv ** (yarn color = white) 

NOTES: Be able to distinguish left from right for the vessels indicated

CAT ARTERIES
(NOTE: "a" indicates a singular artery; "aa" indicates a pair of arteries)

Refer to cat dissection manual pages 113-122

A. STRUCTURES ASSOCIATED WITH THE HEART:

1. Auricles
2. Pulmonary trunk (artery)
3. Coronary aa
4. Aortic arch  & Ligamentous arterosus

B. BRANCHES OF THE AORTIC ARCH:

1. Brachiocephalic a  (yarn color = yellow) **
2. Left Subclavian a  (yarn color = light blue) **

C. BRANCHES OF THE BRACHIOCEPHALIC ARTERY:

1. Right Subclavian a  (yarn color =  black) **
2. Right Common Carotid a  (yarn color = red) **
3. Left Common Carotid a  (yarn color = golden rod) **

D. BRANCHES OF THE SUBCLAVIAN ARTERIES:

1. Internal Mammary aa  HONORS ONLY (yarn color = white)
 

E. AXILLARY ARTERY: The Axillary aa are continuations of the Subclavian aa and pass through the thoracic cavity wall and into the axillary space. Branches of the Axillary aa. include:

1. Brachial aa - continuations of axillary aa into the arm (yarn color = dark blue)  ** 

F. THORACIC AORTA- portion of the descending aorta in the thoracic cavity.(yarn color = red)

G. ABDOMINAL AORTA- portion of the descending aorta in the abdominal cavity. (yarn color = red)

1. Celiac a - most anterior branch of the abdominal aorta. The celiac artery has three branches:
(a) Hepatic a  (yarn color = orange) Pretty thin...be careful  ** 
(b) Left Gastric a  HONORS ONLY  (yarn color = black) Pretty thin...be careful
(c) Splenic a  HONORS ONLY (yarn color = white) Pretty thin...be careful
 
2. Superior Mesenteric a  (yarn color = brown) 
3. Renal aa  (yarn color = yellow)  ** 
4. Inferior Mesenteric a (yarn color = pink)
 

H. BRANCHES OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA SERVING THE LOWER EXTREMITIES:

1. Right External Iliac a (yarn color = tourquoise)
2. Left External Iliac a  (yarn color = orange)
3. Internal Iliac aa  (yarn color = light blue)
4. Femoral aa (yarn color = dark blue)

NOTES: Be able to distinguish left from right for the vessels indicated.