Drug Identification and Toxicology

 

Toxicology: study of poisons and the identification of drugs

Toxicity depends on many factors

        dose

        duration

        Nature of exposure

        Individual characteristics

 

Forensic Toxicology

        Determines cause and effect relationship between exposure to a drug and its toxic effects

 

Classification of Toxic substances

        Intentionally:

        Accidentally

        Deliberately

 

Murder by Poison

 

Acute poisoning: high does over a short period of time

        Ex:

 

Chronic poisoning: lower doses over long time

        Ex:

 

5 Classes of Controlled Substances

  1. Hallucinogens
  2. Narcotics
  3. Stimulants
  4. Anabolic steroids
  5. depressants

 

Hallucinogens

        Affect

       Perceptions

       Thinking

       Self awareness

       emotions

 

Plant derived

        Mescaline ( peyote: cactus)

        Marijuana

 

Chemically derived

        LCD

        Ecstasy

        PCP

 

 

 

Narcotics

 

Opium

        Heroin

        Codeine

        Vicodin

        Morphine

        Precocet

        oxycotin

 

Difficulty breathing

Low blood pressure

Drowsiness

Coma

Cold clammy skin

Small pupils

 

 

Stimulants:

 

Amphetamines

Cocaine

Crack

Methamphetamines (most potent)

 

Rise in temp

Sweating

Confusion

Rapid breathing

Dilated pupils

High blood pressure

Kidneys

Bleeding in brain = death

 

 

Anabolic Steroids

        ________________________________

        Chemical like testosterone

        Used for low levels of testosterone and muscle wasting diseases

        Side effects:

       Acne, baldness, high blood pressure and cholesterol, sterility, blood clotting, kidney and liver cancers and heart attacks

Depressants

        Barbiturates and benzodiazepines

        Relieve anxiety

        Produce sleep

        Decrease heart rate

       __________________________causing drowsiness and slow brain activity

       Side effects: slurred speech, loss of coordination

       Slow heart rate and respiration can cause coma and death

 

Miscellaneous Toxins

 

Organic toxins:

 

Pesticides:

 

Poisons = _______________________________

ALL Alcohols are toxic

Methanol converted to ______________________ in the liver

 

Ethanol acetaldehyde acetic acid too much build up =hangover dehydration

-depress CNS

- Chronic = ________ __________ and dangerous behavior

 

Bacterial Toxins

        ______________: most poisonous biological substance to humans

       Clostridium botulinum

        Neurotoxin

        Paralysis by blocking release of ___________

 

        __________________________: toxin

       Clostridium tetani

       Poison blocks signals from spine to muscles causing spasms so severe tear muscles and break bones

        Worldwide : 1 million deaths/year

        US 5 /year

 

Heavy metals

        _____________________________________

        Ingested, inhalation, absorption

        Stored in soft tissue damaging organs

 

Bioterrorism Agents

_______: waste product of castor oil production

Lethal in a dose the size of a pin

Death caused by the prohibition of proteins

 

Inhalation: <8 hrs; diff breathing,

Few hours: fever, cough, nausea, sweating, tightness in chest, low blood pressure, excess fluid in lungs and death

Ingestion: <6 hrs: vomiting, diarrhea, bloody urine, dehydration, low blood pressure, hallucinations, seizures and death

Skin and eye: redness and pain

 

 

 

Anthrax

Bacillus anthracis forms endospores

Inhalation: flu like symptoms; worsen breathing problems and usually death

 

Ingestion: nausea, vomiting, fever, ab pain, severe diarrhea, fatal 25-60% of cases

 

Skin absorption: raised itchy bump like an insect bite, painless sore with a black center

20% fatality if untreated

 

 

 

Five Common Drug Tests

1. Marquis opium alkaloids

2. Cobalt thiocyanate cocaine

3. P-DMAB LSD

4. Duquenois marijuana

5. Cobalt acetate/isopropylamine Barbituates

 

1. Marquis Test detects

        Heroin turns purple

        Morphine turns purple

        Codeine turns purple

        Amphetamines turns red-brown

 

2. Cobalt thiocyanate: Cocaine produces ______________________

 

3. P-dimenthlyaminobenzaldehyde p-DMAB: Turns _________ in the presence of LSD

 

4. Duquenois Test: Produces a _________ color in the presence of marijuana

 

5. Cobalt acetate/isopropylamine: ________ color produced in the presence of barbiturates